A scholar of real world places used as bases for anime scenes has compiled this extensive map using Google Maps, complete with comparison photographs in each locality and covering a wide variety of series, and some, such as Haruhi, are covered in great depth.
It is a very interesting resource.
You may wish to proceed straight to the map.
There are some rather strong geographic biases evident in the map; presumably this has much to do with the location of the studios in question, and the kind of settings we see in these titles (generally standard Japanese urban/suburban residential areas, with hyper-urban areas such as central Tokyo less common).
I’m not sure what can be done to help non-Japanese speakers make full use of this excellent resource, but I hope this transliterated list will be of assistance:
みずいろ / Mizuiro
月は東に日は西に / Tsuki wa Higashi ni Hi wa Nishi ni
ホワイトブレス / White Bless
つよきす / Tsuyokisu
うたかた / Utakata
ひぐらしのなく頃に / Higurashi no Naku Koro ni
それは舞い散る桜のように / Sore wa Maichiru Sakura no You ni
かみちゅ / Kamichu
涼宮ハルヒの憂鬱 / Haruhi
ダ・カーポ / Da Capo
You might also like to use Rikaichan in conjunction with the map.